2021

2020

Loans and advances to customers

212,530

202,201

Loans and advances to banks

341

811

Debt securities

10,597

12,043

Negative interest expense on TLTRO III

13,703

1,911

Negative interest expense deposits from customers

6,441

3,964

Other interest income

2,708

91

Total interest income

246,320

221,021

The interest income includes income derived from loans and related transactions, as well as related commissions, which by their nature are similar to interest payments. The interest-bearing securities item includes transaction result of EUR -236.0 thousand (2020: nil).

The negative interest expense on TLTRO III relates to the negative interest on the funding received from the ECB under Deposits from banks (refer to note 13 on page Deposits from banks).

The negative interest expense other relates to the negative interest received on Deposits from customers (refer to note 14 on page Deposits from customers).

Other interest income mainly relates to a one-off interest amount receivable on estimated amounts to be paid out under the Deposit Guarantee Scheme.